Light is the ideal carrier of information. Over the past several decades, light has enabled the formation of networks across long distances to transform how information is transmitted around the world. Today, networks at short length scales based on light are now poised to enable another revolution in high-performance computing. Many elements, such as CPUs, GPUs, and RAM can be connected efficiently at data rates comparable to those within the elements themselves. This will lead to new computer architectures and require new software that can take advantage of these highly connected elements for applications in AI, ML, modeling and simulation.