Gauge optimization, size and shape, and shell optimization, can be used to improve an existing design without altering its overall architecture. 3D topology optimization can be used when a significant re-design is desired because it identifies the optimal load paths of a structure and recommend material reduction. The material layout produced in the 3D topology is then interpreted into a concept design which is dimensioned and fine-tuned with the gauge, size, and shape approaches resulting in a final structure.
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