In manufacturing industry and DoD, developing and producing optimized and reliable
products is the primary goal for success of business, reduction of warranty cost, and success of
military operations. As the CAD and CAE tools are advancing, the simulation-based design
process is often used to obtain an optimum design, prior to prototype development, to reduce the
product development cost. However, a design that is deterministically optimized without
inclusion of input uncertainty will be most likely only 50% reliable.